A Cartesian space expands from a zero-point within it but a polar space doesn’t. If one blows up a balloon, its surface expands everywhere at once, not from a point on the surface. The physics conclusion that space is expanding “everywhere at once, not from a fixed point in it, suggests that any simulation of it is polar not Cartesian. If the earth was flat then Cartesian coordinates would work but it turned out to be a sphere surface so we use longitudes and latitudes instead, which are polar coordinates. The north and south poles define the axis around which the earth rotates.

The nature of a circle is that its start point is arbitrary so any point can begin it. The axis chosen to turn a circle into a sphere is also arbitrary – rotating a circle on any axis through its center creates the same sphere, so the poles of the generated sphere are also arbitrary – any opposite circle nodes could be poles of the sphere (Figure 2.4). The same logic applies to a hypersphere, so if our space is a three-dimensional surface generated by rotation, how it happens is arbitrary.

Now add that this all occurs on a network. We know that our space is isotropic or uniform in all directions. If space was an object like the earth, it might rotate a certain way but it isn’t a physical “thing” as there is no physical ether. Space as a polar simulation raises the question of what rotations generate it? The quantum network seems to do what quantum reality always does – take every option – but how could it do this?

If the sphere in Figure 2.4 came from fixed network rotations, it would have fixed poles, which is asymmetric. Every line is a connection on a network, so the poles would have more connections as shown in Figure 2.4 and the result wouldn’t be a uniform space. Computer science however reveals that a network can easily alter its links, as our cell phone networks routinely change their connections to improve efficiency as the load changes. If the quantum network does the same, each node can locally configure its own links as if it were an axis pole. In other words, if control is distributed, each node can “paint” its own polar coordinates, setting its connections as if it were a rotation axis. This approach doesn’t allow an objective view of space but as will be seen, our world has no need for that because as Einstein concluded, every object in our universe “has its own space”.

A network that distributes control lets every node choose its neighbors as if it were the center of all space. Each gets a slightly different view but that doesn’t matter because every view is equivalent. Each node of space decides itself which nodes are neighbors, just as a web designer can decide which pages a web page links to. In a distributed network, polar coordinates allow a relative space where every node is the center of its own frame of reference.